Assessment is an essential component of learning andteaching, as it allows the quality of both teaching and learning to be judged and improved (Ferrari, Cachia, & Punie, 2009). It often determines the priorities of education (NACCCE, 1999), it always influences practices and affects
(Ellis & Barrs, 2008). Changes in curricula and learning objectives are ineffective if assessment practices remain the same (Cachia et al., 2010), as learning and teaching tend to be modelled against the test (NACCCE, 1999). Formative assessment is a central feature of the learning environment of the 21st century. Learners need substantial, regular and meaningful feedback; teachers need it in order to understand who is learning and how to orchestrate the learning process.
Assessment procedures in formal education and training have traditionally focused on examining knowledge and facts through formal testing (Cachia et al., 2010) and do not easily lend themselves to grasping ‘soft skills’. Lately, however, there has been a growing awareness that curricula — and with them assessment strategies — need to be revised to more adequately reflect the skills needed for life in the 21st century. The evolution of information and communication Technologies (ICT) is deeply re-shaping society, giving rise to new competence needs.
Skills such as problem-solving, reflection, creativity, critical thinking, learning to learn, risk-taking, collaboration, and entrepreneurship are becoming increasingly important (Redecker et al., 2010).
The relevance of these ‘21st century skills’ (Binkley et al., 2012) is recognised in the European Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (2006) which emphasises their transversal and over-arching role. To foster and develop these skills, assessment strategies
should go beyond testing factual knowledge and capture the less tangible themes underlying all Key Competences. At the same time, assessment strategies need to be better harmonised with 21st century learning approaches by re-focusing on the importance of providing timely and meaningful feedback to both learners and teachers.
Practical tasks using mobile devices or online resources are another promising avenue for developing ICT-enabled assessment formats. Several national pilots assess tasks that replicate real life contexts and are solved by using common technologies, such as the Internet, office and multimedia tools.
However, against the background of rapidly changing skill requirements in a knowledge-based society, education and training systems in Europe are becoming increasingly aware that curricula and with them assessment strategies need to refocus on fostering more holistic ‘Key Competences’ and transversal or general skills, such as ‘21st century skills’. ICT offer many opportunities for supporting assessment formats that can capture complex skills and competences that are otherwise difficult to assess. To seize these opportunities, research and development in eAssessment and assessment in general must transcend the Testing Paradigm and develop new concepts of embedded, authentic and holistic assessment.
Technology can help teachers assess their students’ learning as well as their performance in the classroom. Use of ICT in assessment involves the use of digital devices to assist in the construction, delivery, storage or reporting of student assessment tasks, responses, grades or feedback.
Assessment is always considered a key component in the process of teaching and learning. A major role is being played by ICT in making the process of assessment easy for teachers. As the use of ICT is increasing, the assessment is made now in a new and innovative manner. While employing ICT in assessment, the recording of responses and providing necessary feedback is likely to grow as virtual learning environments is growing day by day. Not only this the students are being empowered to make use of online or web-based assessments which in return help the students to do self-assessment of their learning.
Technology is supposed to play in effective and efficient assessment of learning. The technology in modern times has reshaped the teaching learning process as it offers various number of tools that can be used in the classroom to enhance the learning to a great extent. Technology has the ability to support teachers by assessing students’ learning in terms of their performance in the classroom. The use of ICT in assessment is now common where it utilizes digital devices which help in construction of assessment tasks for students. It helps in delivery of assessment tasks. Not only construction or delivery, the ICT has the ability to give grades or feedback to students. It is essential for schools to encourage themselves to strengthen their commitment to developing a better assessment practice which can support teachers, students and other stakeholders (Marina, 2015).
Geoffrey (2011) in his Teacher’s Handbook that was on e-Assessment stated that the assessment which is based on ICT can be taken up with many technological devices. These devices include desktop or laptops, smart phones, iPads etc. ICT based assessment has the capability to use various kind of formats like as text, videos, images and sounds.
Teachers in teaching learning process can use these modern technologies to build their assessment, to convey these tasks to those students for which it is made. After that the teacher can assign the grades tothe students based on the conducted assessment.
(a) Computer Assisted Assessment (CAA): Computer-assisted assessment is used to assess learning and performance of the students. It includes all types of assessments whether formative or summative assessment and which is then conveyed with the assistance of these modern technologies. Delivery of the assessment is made online as well as offline. Computer Assisted Assessment follows the formative assessment where it helps the students to check their knowledge. It is basically done to know whether the student has learned the task or not and to give timely feedback to the students which mainly teaches the teacher educator to know the best way to teach any subject. CAA yields better results for students and would also engage them creatively on a stronger level and therefore increase satisfaction (Schoen and Keegan, 2016). Examples of computer assisted assessment are the OMR that is used to grade MCQs and various other database programs that help in recording student marks.
Computer-assisted assessment is used to assess learning and performance of the students. It includes all types of assessments whether formative or summative assessment and which is then conveyed with the assistance of these modern technologies. Delivery of the assessment is made online as well as offline. Computer Assisted Assessment follows the formative assessment where it helps the students to check their knowledge. It is basically done to know whether the student has learned the task or not and to give timely feedback to the students which mainly teaches the teacher educator to know the best way to teach any subject. CAA yields better results for students and would also engage them creatively on a stronger level and therefore increase satisfaction (Schoen and Keegan, 2016). Examples of computer assisted assessment are the OMR that is used to grade MCQs and various other database programs that help in recording student marks.
ICT based technology can be used for assessment of the students in classroom situations. Computer can be used as the medium for testing, scoring tests and test score analysis. Computer Based Testing and Computer Adaptive Testing are the application of ICT in assessment practice in which students perform the test while sitting in forward-facing of a computer device Computer Adaptive Testing, E-Portfolio, Digital Rubrics, Online Assessment, Survey Tools, Wikis
BINKLEY, M., ERSTAD, O., HERMAN, J., RAIZEN, S., RIPLEY,M. & RUMBLE, M.
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Marina (2015). Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Its Role in Educational Assessment. Englisia, 3(1), 23-37. Retrieved from https://www.doi.org/10.22373/ej.v3i1.664
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