Today, many studies are carried out in order to make the education-teaching processes more effective, and an important part of these studies is the integration of technology into education. For this reason, in education; The use of new technologies such as augmented reality, cloud technology, three-dimensional materials, and 3D printers is increasing day by day.
The concept of the Internet of Things has attracted all the attention as a new paradigm that has emerged in the field of informatics in recent years. This concept, as it affects many fields, has the potential to bring some innovations in both traditional education and open and distance learning.
With its distinctive features such as perception and intelligence (artificial and ordered), the Internet of Things (IoT) can support and significantly benefit pedagogical processes for all interrelated actors (faculty, students and staff) and all related entities (libraries, classrooms and laboratories).
The Internet of Things technology, which is of great importance and is one of the technologies that will shape the future, has been widely used in traditional face-to-face education environments, open and distance learning systems, as well as being used in various fields as mentioned before.
After the Internet of Things started to be used in education:
The days of objects being just objects are over. With the rise of the IoT, everything will be increasingly capable of communication, turning them into responsive tools that can be adopted and adapted in a variety of new and exciting ways.
In the past, researchers have focused on finding ways to deliver distance education. Today, more and more researchers are trying to use wireless technologies to create smarter classes and, more specifically, classes that can give instructors real-time feedback on what is working and what is not. A team of Serbian researchers led by Nenad Gligoric reported during the lectures that “after about 10 minutes, students’ attention begins to wane. At the end of a lesson, students remember 70% of the information presented in the first ten minutes and only 20% of the last ten minutes.” But this is also where the IoT becomes important. As Gliogric puts it, “By combining IoT technology with social and behavioral analysis, the ordinary classroom,
Movements, behaviors, etc. to come to a conclusion about the lecturers’ presentation and the audience’s satisfaction. This allows instructors to consistently deliver good presentations and achieve better impact, while audiences will benefit from interesting lectures, making the learning process shorter, more efficient, more enjoyable and even fun.” So what would this class be like?
Theoretically, every desk will be equipped with a sensor in the classrooms of the future. If students get distracted during class, the lecturer (even in a room with hundreds of students) will know. Likewise, the class itself will be able to provide the instructor with real-time feedback on everything from who is speaking to vocabulary levels. In the future, lecturers will be able to see in detail who spoke at the end of each class, for how long, and on what topics.
In the future, artificial intelligence-based computer programs (virtual education assistants) will recognize the characteristics of students, personalize their lessons, and show them the fastest and most accurate ways to learn the subjects. Where he has difficulty, he will repeat the lecture and get more practice, and ultimately it will make the learning process effective and efficient.
As one of the newest and most popular technologies, augmented reality, which is possible to make virtual trips about the subject in any lesson(Augmented Reality – AR) and virtual reality (Virtual Reality – VR))”We can talk about. These and similar technologies are more economicallybe made suitable and widely used in education. Students will be able to see the places in the classroom that are not normally possible to go and see, and they will be able to see the tools and equipment that cannot be brought to the classroom in three dimensions thanks to these technologies. Augmented and virtual reality technology, which can partially replace smart boards that have become widespread today, promises a lot in education.
Yes, that’s right, Augmented Reality or AR technology is bringing rapid transformations in the education industry or the way teachers teach students in classrooms.
When Augmented Reality first appeared, it was not expected to bring this kind of revolution to the world. No one expected this technology to bring revolutionary changes in the way people communicate with each other.
Today, Augmented Reality devices have become important tools for teachers to provide unique experiences to their students. This is the reason why Augmented Reality has caught the attention of students all over the world.
To access Augmented Reality content, users need to scan or view a trigger image with the help of a smartphone; this helps to create an action in succession.
When it comes to providing quality experiences to students during classroom teaching sessions, teachers can use Aurasma Studio or Aurasma App that can help them develop their own Augmented Reality experience. These AR experiences can be used by teachers to engage students in an innovative way.
For example, Augmented Reality can be used by teachers to make art lessons more interesting and liven up a math lesson through videos that show math problems solved by students.
This can give students the opportunity to initiate an Aura simply by pointing a mobile phone at a particular equation. In addition, a trigger image can also be added to a Google Form by users when it comes to requesting the school counselor’s time.
Apart from that, it can also be used by users to create a virtual tour of a classroom by simply pointing their mobile phone at pictures of a classroom.
Some of the best Augmented Reality apps that can be used to enhance the learning experience are Daqri Studio, Chromville, Quiver, STAR Augmented Reality Worksheets, AugThat, Fetch Lunch and Popular Toys etc.
With the help of these AR apps, students can really learn their lessons faster
In the near future, 3D printers that can be used by many people will be further developed and will be used from kindergartens to higher education. From engineering faculties to vocational high schools, 3D printers will provide great benefits in education in all schools with technical content. For bets that are difficult to understand such as molecular structures, it will be possible to make the subjects more understandable by 3D printing them instead of drawing them on the board.
Through wearable devices, student performance evaluation activities can be planned and executed. For example; During the lesson, the teacher can send the answers to the students’ smart watches regarding an assessment question to be presented to the students and receive instant answers. While this situation supports the active participation of students who have difficulty in expressing themselves, it can make great contributions to the teacher in getting the opinions of each individual in the learning environment and designing the learning process in line with these views. With smart wristwatches, students’ health can be kept under control during their time at school and feedback can be sent to teachers and parents in case of any unexpected changes (blood pressure, sugar, fever, etc.).
Wearables contribute to stateful learning. It provides instant learning to individuals during participation. For example; In a nature trip, students are asked to examine the plants they find using their smart glasses and share about these plants they examine. While students examine these plants with their smart glasses, they can find the basic properties of these plants on the Internet thanks to visual search. By recording these features and voices they find, they can save their comments on course blogs and share them with their friends. Another example is the use of wearable devices when more than one student cannot be taken to the planned field trip at the same time. For example; A physics teacher from West Michigan/USA, He went to CERN Laboratories in Switzerland and visited the large hydron collider. During this trip, the physics teacher made an online simultaneous video conference with his students through his smart glasses and explained to his students what he saw during the field trip, allowing the students to feel themselves in a virtual field trip even though they were physically far away.
When we think of school, most of us think of notebooks, books and pencils. Although it is not possible to completely abandon them, computers will be used to a large extent instead. In an environment where each student has a computer of their own, the student will be able to log in with their own name, view their classes on their computer, and easily do their homework, projects and exams. Being able to access the lessons and information stored in a virtual environment from anywhere and anytime outside the school will bring with it many advantages.
Today, smart boards are widely used. One step beyond these will be giant touch screens. Thanks to the computer support, much more interactive content can be displayed on the screen. The touchpad can act as a standard board, and students can even share their homework from their computers or smart devices.
Bendable screens that are made of durable materials and can be bent without damage, almost as thin as paper, will reduce the use of notebooks and pens.
When asked what the schools of the future will be like, we can easily say “it will be very different from the present”. We can recommend watching the video in the link below, which includes a short example of how to use the Internet of Things in the classrooms of the future, which will provide face-to-face education.
It is seen that the developments in the technological field have entered the education sector rapidly, especially since the 2000s, and offer innovative applications to the existing education and training strategies and methods. Considering the learning needs of the 21st century information society, it can be said that fast access to information and learning anytime, anywhere and in time of need gain importance. Wherever learning needs arise, the “mobile learning” education model has emerged. With the developing mobile technologies, this new learning model brings a brand new dimension and potential to education, and brings innovative strategies, methods and learning approaches to education programs by providing convenience in accessing information independently of time and place and on the go (Çakır, 2011).
On the other hand, it is thought that the above-mentioned educational advantages are not sufficiently utilized due to the problems encountered in mobile technologies such as data sharing, software sharing and infrastructure services. At this point, storage, communication, planning, etc. Cloud Technology, which provides opportunities for mobile learning, provides effective solutions to solve the problems encountered in mobile learning, and enables mobile learning to be done more effectively and efficiently. In fact, Cloud Technology offers not only solutions for mobile learning, but also effective and alternative solutions to all areas of education with the services it offers. Today, with the rapid development of technology, As in many fields, the hardware and software infrastructure of the technologies used in education loses its validity after a while, and the necessity of purchasing new hardware and software arises. For this reason, preferring dynamic, scalable and flexible cloud computing infrastructures instead of organizing in-house infrastructures in the education sector will provide advantages in terms of time and budget. Thanks to cloud technology, the necessity of constantly investing in new infrastructure in education or obtaining licenses for new software is eliminated, and it is possible to have the opportunity to access information resources quickly.
With the Internet of Things (IoT), teachers can both track student progress based on student information and understand which teaching practices are more effective by using smart algorithms to improve learning. By collaborating with each other using Internet of Things (IoT) based infrastructure services, the student can distinguish their strengths or shortcomings and analyze their own activities by identifying learning goals. The analysis of these activities can also show the teacher that the visual arrangements of the lesson need to be improved (Farhan et al., 2018). The Internet of Things (IoT) will also transform learning learning management systems (LMS).
With educational data mining, different models are applied to the students’ personal information, grade status, absenteeism information, successful and unsuccessful courses, which are the most important elements of the education process, to determine the reasons for their success, to increase their success, to prevent their absenteeism, to choose the courses they will take and to reach their career goals. Recommendations on the subject can be provided (Rizvi, Rienties and Khoja, 2019). In addition, data mining techniques are used in education in forming groups according to students’ personal characteristics, individual learning similarities, detecting undesirable student behaviors such as low motivation, absenteeism, dropping out of school, and not following school rules, predicting and taking necessary precautions. It is possible to detect the problems that may arise in the education and training environment in advance and to improve the education and training environments. For educators, using data mining techniques in education, feedback can be reached on how students can make the learning process more efficient and take corrective measures.
Collaboration with Microsoft, Pearson and Canberra led to the production of HoloLens. HoloLens is a headset that allows viewing objects through augmented reality and was developed for educational purposes only. With the help of this title, students can see, change and reproduce all kinds of objects by disassembling them. Microsoft’s HoloLens is a big step towards AI Holographic learning. HoloLens is essentially a holographic computer built into a wearable headset. The headset allows you to see, hear and interact with holograms in the environment. Spatial sound technology combined with the use of high-resolution lenses helps create an immersive and interactive holographic experience.
The difficulties experienced in explaining complex systems such as the solar system, human body or geographical structures to students can be eliminated with hologram technology. With this method, teachers can explain the structure by showing the holographic reflection of a real structure and dividing it into small parts. In this way, students learn in a short time and in the most accurate way. For example, by working on a holographic copy of the human body, they can see how each organ works and what the human body is like.
Holographic presence technology can also add a new dimension to interactive online training. For this, a forwarder is needed to scan the images of the teachers with the help of a projector and send them online. Once transferred online, teachers will be able to share a classroom with other students from around the world. Holographic projection technologies could revolutionize education by bringing mixed reality into the mainstream through realistic, interactive holograms. Holographic technology offers students around the world a truly visual and interactive learning experience.
The Internet of Things allows students to track and analyze their own data to help them become healthier individuals. Malnutrition and obesity are the leading health problems that threaten today’s youth. According to different studies conducted in England, one third of the students in the last year of primary education are obese or overweight; According to the data obtained from the accelerometer (speedometer) given to 6500 7th grade students, it shows that half of the students are inactive for 6.4 hours a day. These data should be well analyzed and solutions should be found by the ministries. The Internet of Things can come into play at the point of security as well as the health status of students. In this respect, sensors have important tasks. In many educational institutions,
As a result, with technology acting as a catalyst, education has moved from a knowledge transfer model to a model where learners are more active, productive, self-directed and collaborative. We will hear more often from now on the integration of Wearable Technologies and Internet of Things concepts into learning environments in education and education-related topics such as health and safety.
Considering the studies on the integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) into learning-teaching processes at the K12 level, it is seen that it has an important potential in terms of creating smart learning environments and providing rich learning experiences. In the effective integration of such technologies with the learning-teaching process; Usage areas such as monitoring student participation and performance, recording and providing instant feedback to students and reducing teacher dependency come to the fore. Such use of the Internet of Things (IoT) reduces teachers’ workload, allowing teachers to focus on monitoring the efficiency of the learning process and providing learning support to learners.
It is seen that the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) at the university level is generally focused on campus security and ensuring the efficiency of campus management and improving learning-teaching processes. Although Internet of Things (IoT) based systems in higher education are not widespread yet, they find more and more usage areas and studies and initiatives for new usage areas are continuing. In the near future, we foresee that the use of the systems and products covered in these studies in higher education institutions will increase and become increasingly widespread.
Various IOT applications such as “Smart Classroom (AS) and Student Tracking System (ÖTS)” have been developed for some studies. With AS, it is aimed to control the opening and closing of classroom lights and door automatically by the developed program or by the authorities independently of the platform. In the courses given in educational institutions with ÖTS, it is aimed to eliminate the complexity of the students’ attendance information and the difficulty of following the attendance on paper, to use the time delay during the lesson for the learning and teaching process, and to put an end to the psychological distraction of the identity check during the exam. Thanks to the developed ÖTS with both fingerprint reader and RFID ID card, In universities and other educational institutions, all attendance will be taken through the interface during courses and exams. Transactions will be carried out with the information obtained from fingerprint and/or RFID student cards, which are unique and cannot be imitated. The internet connection that the system will have and the interface that will be designed at the best level will be accessed by authorized persons with their usernames and passwords. Information such as whether to attend the exam and classes, whether the student is absent from the course at the end of the semester, etc. will be accessible through the student’s own account. In addition, in order not to fail the course, the student will be warned by sending information to the e-mail address registered in the system when the attendance limit is exceeded. AS application, Thanks to object control and data network between objects, a systematic, orderly and safe classroom environment will be created. The developed modular AS system will also be used to control and manage classroom data.
(Aydın A., Usanmaz B., & Göktaş Y., (2021). The areas where the Internet of Things is used in education and its effects on these areas. Journal of Higher Education and Science/Journal of Higher Education and Science, 11(2), 425-436 .
Altinpulluk, H. (2018). The use of internet of things technology in educational environments. AUAd, 4(1), 94-1111.)
(Altınpulluk, H. (2018). The use of internet of things technology in educational environments. AUAd, 4(1), 94-111.