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Internet of Things, introduction

The Internet of Things



Is a a concept we feel more and more strongly every day – maybe without even knowing it has such a name.

The abbreviation IoT should be expanded as the Internet of Things, although recently the nomenclature Intelligence of Things is also used. The Internet of Things (IoT or Intelligence of Things) is, in simple terms, a system of electronic devices that can automatically communicate and exchange data over a network without human intervention.

This is a very broad term that we can include an increasing number of smart home devices.


Introduction-What is the IoT?

This pattern includes smart home appliances (washing machines, cleaning robots, refrigerators, bathroom scales, televisions, air purifiers, or light bulbs), wearebles like smart watches or workout bands (smart bands), and cars with smart features.

Not only that – there are also devices used in production (e. g. food), sales, energy, waste management or even medical devices.

Smart cities are still a song of the future, but many cities are implementing more and more IoT solutions.


At the same time, platforms such as Arduino are being promoted to encourage people to create their own Internet of Things solutions – such an example being a self-made early warning system for upcoming earthquakes created by a teenager from Chile.
An important feature of the Internet of Things is fast Internet connectivity, as smart devices cause the amount of data needed to be sent and received to grow exponentially.

Hence, the need for 5G connectivity is often discussed in the context of IoT, which is expected to be the next big step in developing the Internet of Things.

Examples of internet of things devices

Voice assistants such as Amazon Echo or Google Home, thanks to which we can not only receive the necessary information but also control other smart devices connected to the network using voice commands.


Fit/smart bands – sports bands that can measure your heart rate, count your steps or even monitor your sleep.



Connecting all smart devices to the internet has created a host of new opportunities, but also risks. It turned out that many such devices may not be properly protected against hacking attacks, so it’s always a good idea to keep not only your home router’s software updated, but that of all your smart devices.


Connecting all smart devices to the internet has created a host of new opportunities, but also risks. It turned out that many such devices may not be properly protected against hacking attacks, so it’s always a good idea to keep not only your home router’s software updated, but that of all your smart devices.

According to a report by McKinsey Institute, the Internet of Things has the potential to significantly revolutionize the industry and influence the development of the global economy.

The research unit estimates that there could be as many as 30 billion IOT-connected devices worldwide by 2020 – that’s nearly four devices per person on Earth.

The current IOT devices that make up the network stay in constant contact and can send information to other familiar circuits in a split second, even if there are as many as 30 billion of them.

It can be predicted that the concept of IOT technology will have a significant impact on the construction market.

Internet of things - application

The IoT ecosystem consists of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices that use embedded processors, sensors, and communications equipment to collect, send, and use data they acquire from their environments. IoT devices share data from sensors that collect data, connecting to an IoT gateway or other edge device where the data is sent to the cloud for analysis or analysis locally.

Sometimes these devices communicate with other related devices and act on the information they receive from each other. Devices do most of the work without human intervention, although humans may interact with devices – for example, to configure them, give instructions, or access data.

The connectivity, networking, and communication protocols used with these Internet-enabled devices largely depend on the specific IoT applications deployed.

The Internet of things and its benefits

The Internet of Things (IoT) offers a number of benefits to organizations, enabling them to:

-monitor their overall business processes;

-improve the customer experience;

-save time and money;

-increase employee productivity; allow integration and adaptation of business models;

-make better business decisions,

– generate more revenue for the organization

Internet of things - examples

There are many real-world applications of the Internet of Things, ranging from consumer Internet to enterprise IoT to industrial manufacturing IoT. IoT applications span many industries, including automotive, telecommunications, energy, transportation, medical, retail, and more.



For instance, in the consumer segment, smart homes equipped with smart thermostats, smart appliances and connected heating, lighting and electronic devices can be controlled remotely via computers, smartphones or other mobile devices.

Wearables with sensors and software can collect and analyze user data, sending messages to other technologies about users to make users’ lives easier and more convenient.

Wearable devices are also used to ensure public safety. For example:

improving first aid response times in emergencies by providing optimized directions to the site.

As well as tracking the life activities of construction workers or firefighters in life-threatening places.

In healthcare, IoT offers many benefits, including the ability to more accurately monitor patients to use the data generated and analyze it.Hospitals often use the Internet of Things systems to perform tasks such as inventory management for both pharmaceuticals and medical instruments.


Smart buildings, for example, can reduce energy costs by using sensors that detect the number of people in a room. The temperature can adjust automatically – for example, turning on the air conditioner if sensors detect the conference room is full, or turning off the heat when everyone in the office has gone home. In agriculture, IoT-based smart agricultural systems can help monitor, for example, light, temperature, soil moisture in crop fields using connected sensors. IoT also plays an important role in the automation of irrigation systems.


In a smart city, IoT sensors and implementations such as smart streetlights and smart meters can help reduce traffic, save energy, monitor and solve environmental problems, and improve sanitation.




The Internet of things - Risks and security

The Internet of Things connects billions of devices to the Internet and includes the use of billions of data points, all of which must be secured. Due to the expanded attack surface, IoT security and IoT privacy are mentioned. Since IoT devices are tightly interconnected, all a hacker has to do is exploit one vulnerability to manipulate all the data, rendering it useless. Manufacturers who fail to update their devices regularly or at all are leaving them vulnerable to attack.

Additionally, connected devices often require users to provide personal information, including names, ages, addresses, phone numbers, and even social media accounts – information that is invaluable to hackers. It’s easy for identity theft here. However, hackers are not the only threat to the Internet of Things; Privacy is another major concern for Internet of Things users.

For example, companies that manufacture and distribute consumer IoT devices may use those devices to obtain and sell users’ personal information. In addition to leaking personal data, IoT poses a threat to critical infrastructure, including electricity, transportation, and financial services.

About 100 new devices are connected to the Internet every second. Their number exceeded the population already in 2011.

By 2021, spending on IoT-based solutions could reach $1. 5 trillion, according to forecasts. Today, the development strategies of the largest corporations are built on its solutions. In a few years, those companies that can collect data from devices and process it will begin to win the market race. Will IoT change global business?

Now we see that additional safety and regulations still need to be refined. But there’s no turning back from that. This is a normal developmental trend. If we want to advance civilization, we must intelligently, with the limitations of AI at the back of our minds, slowly make steps forward. It is not possible to wonder if progress can be stopped. This is a normal developmental trend. If we want to advance civilization, we must intelligently, with the limitations of AI at the back of our minds, slowly make steps forward. It is not possible to wonder if progress can be stopped.

The IoT development path is inevitable, soon in a 10-20 year timeframe we will not be focusing on IoT because, like many technologies today, it is just sleeping normalcy. This is a prospect of development not only for large companies, but also for smaller ones and start-ups, everyone will be able to make money here


The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept that aims to look at the bigger picture into which the Internet of Things (IoT) fits. However, when you take a closer look at IoE, you’ll see that it’s actually also about the vision of the distributed network, which in the era of decentralization is increasingly focused on the edge, some digital transformation mechanisms, and a focus on the business outcomes of the Internet of Things.

While the Internet of Things is today mainly approached from the perspective of connected devices, their sensing capabilities, their communication capabilities, and finally the data generated by the devices that are analyzed and used to control processes and power many potential Internet of Things use cases, the Internet of Everything concept wants to offer a broader view. The Internet of Everything was created by Cisco, but also used by some other companies, Even if de facto in people’s perception it is mainly seen as Cisco-related, and most of the resources come from Cisco, so you will hear Cisco’s name a lot in this review (we are not related in any way).

Knowing that Cisco is not only a big player in the Internet of Things landscape, but also, among other things, plays a leading role in networking, security, human interaction technologies (in business), and business and industry process optimization, there is also a branding aspect to the Internet of Everything.

Moreover, even if Cisco tends to portray the Internet of Everything as the next stage in the Internet of Things, it is as much related to the Internet of Things as it is to the third platform and hyper-connected distributed reality, which is seen as the core technology and process stack that enables digital transformation, playing a big role in distributed networks and computing, areas important to Cisco.

Note that given Cisco’s experience and the Internet of Everything, we are more in the context of business and industry (Industrial Internet of Things), not consumer Internet of Things. 


Fog computing, a form of edge computing and also promoted by Cisco, moves IoT data analytics to the point of origin, thus speeding things up and freeing up bandwidth and other resources in non-dispersed analytics (at the edge, on the network, and in some form of cloud integration). Cybersecurity is moving away from the traditional centralized view to a decentralized approach where security is done as close to the endpoint as possible. This is not just about the security of the Internet of Things, but about cybersecurity in general, because the security perimeter is ubiquitous: protection (security and privacy by design, the second of the GDPR principles)happens everywhere with a key endpoint (for example, the mobile user). Explains the success of cloud security.