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Internet of Things

Internet of Things


IoT − Overview

IoT Systems: Enabling Deeper Automation, Analysis, and Integration. Enhancing Reach, Accuracy, and Impact Through Emerging Sensing, Networking, and Robotics Technology.

Leveraging recent Software Advances, decreasing Hardware Costs, and evolving Tech Attitudes, IoT harnesses Innovation. Its advanced components drive transformative shifts in delivering Products, Services, with profound Social Impact, Economic Impact, and Political Impact.”

Keywords: IoT systems, automation, analysis, integration, reach, accuracy, sensing technology, networking, robotics, software advances, hardware costs, innovation, transformative shifts, products, services, social impact, economic impact, political impact.

IoT − Key Features

The key components of IoT encompass Artificial Intelligence, Connectivity, Sensors, Active Engagement, and Small Device Use. A succinct overview of these elements is provided below:

  • AI: IoT transforms everyday objects into “smart” entities by leveraging data collection, artificial intelligence algorithms, and interconnected networks. This can range from simple tasks like your refrigerator reordering milk and cereal when supplies run low.

  • Connectivity: Advancements in networking technologies, particularly within IoT, have liberated networks from exclusive reliance on major providers. IoT establishes smaller, more cost-effective networks among its system devices.

  • Sensors: Sensors play a pivotal role in defining IoT. They shift IoT from a passive device network to an active system capable of seamless real-world integration.

  • Active Engagement: While much interaction with connected technology remains passive, IoT introduces a fresh approach to active engagement with content, products, and services.

  • Small Devices: As anticipated, devices have progressively shrunk in size, cost, and grown in power. IoT capitalizes on purpose-built small devices to deliver precision, scalability, and versatility.

In summary, IoT’s core facets encompass AI-driven enhancement, innovative networking, sensor-based activation, dynamic engagement, and the strategic use of compact devices.

IoT – Advantages

IoT presents a wide array of advantages that extend across various aspects of both personal lifestyle and business operations. Here are some notable advantages offered by IoT:

  • Improved Customer Engagement: Current analytics exhibit blind spots and inaccuracies, with engagement predominantly passive. IoT revolutionizes this scenario, fostering deeper and more impactful engagement with audiences.

  • Technology Optimization: The same technologies and data that enhance customer experiences also elevate device functionality, facilitating potent technological advancements. IoT provides access to crucial functional and field data.

  • Reduced Waste: IoT identifies areas for improvement with clarity. While current analytics offer surface-level insights, IoT supplies real-world information that leads to more efficient resource management.

  • Enhanced Data Collection: Conventional data collection is hindered by limitations and a bias towards passive utilization. IoT transcends these boundaries, placing data exactly where humans need it for comprehensive analysis. It empowers the creation of a precise and holistic understanding of various phenomena.

In summary, IoT delivers advantages that encompass enriched customer engagement, optimized technology utilization, waste reduction, and superior data collection, contributing to more informed decision-making and transformative enhancements across domains.

IoT − Disadvantages

While IoT offers a remarkable array of benefits, it also introduces a significant array of challenges. Here are some prominent issues it faces:

  • Security: IoT establishes a realm of perpetually connected devices communicating through networks. Despite security measures, the system often lacks comprehensive control, leaving users vulnerable to various potential attackers.

  • Privacy: The advanced nature of IoT results in the extensive collection of highly detailed personal data without requiring the user’s active involvement.

  • Complexity: The design, deployment, and maintenance of IoT systems can appear complex due to their reliance on multiple technologies and a wide array of emerging enabling technologies.

  • Flexibility: Concerns exist about the ease of integration between different IoT systems. There’s apprehension about encountering conflicting or locked systems when attempting to integrate multiple platforms.

  • Compliance: Like any business-related technology, IoT must adhere to regulations. Its intricate nature can make compliance seem daunting, especially when compared to the relatively familiar landscape of standard software compliance.

In summary, the challenges associated with IoT encompass security vulnerabilities, privacy concerns, design complexities, integration issues, and regulatory compliance hurdles. These challenges must be navigated to fully harness IoT’s potential benefits.

IoT − Hardware

The hardware utilized in IoT systems includes devices for a remote dashboard, devices for control, servers, a routing or bridge device, and sensors.
These devices manage key tasks and functions such as system activation, action specifications, security, communication, and detection to support-specific goals and actions.

IoT − Sensors

In IoT, sensors emerge as a pivotal hardware component. These devices encompass essential modules including energy management, power management, RF (Radio Frequency) communication, and sensing modules. RF modules play a critical role in facilitating communication through various signal processing techniques.
They incorporate technologies such as WiFi, ZigBee, Bluetooth, radio transceivers, duplexers, and BAW (Bulk Acoustic Wave) components.


The sensing module manages sensing through assorted active and passive measurement devices. Here is a list of some of the measurement devices used in IoT:

Wearable Electronics

Wearable electronic devices are small devices worn on the head, neck, arms, torso, and feet.


Smartwatches not only help us stay connected, but as a part of an IoT system, they allow access needed for improved productivity.

Current smart wearable devices include:

  • -Head – Helmets, glasses
  • -Neck – Jewelry, collars
  • -Arm – Watches, wristbands,rings
  • -Torso – Clothing,backpacks
  • -Feet – Socks, shoes


Smart glasses enable us to access more of the information and services that we care about, and when integrated into an Internet of Things (IoT) system, they enable a new way of working.

Standard Devices

The Desktop, Tablet, and Cellphone remain essential components of the Internet of Things (IoT) as the primary control centers and remotes.
-The Desktop offers the user the most comprehensive control of the system and its features.

-The Tablet provides access to the system’s essential functions in a similar manner to the Desktop, while the Cellphone enables some essential settings modifications and also offers remote functionality.

Other key connected devices include standard network devices like routers and switches.

IoT – Software

IoT software is all about networking and making sure everything runs smoothly. It’s made up of different parts like platforms, built-in systems, partners, and middleware, and they all work together to make sure data is collected, devices are connected, analytics are done in real time, and applications and processes are extended to the IoT network. It also links up with important business systems like ordering, robotics, and scheduling, so it can do all kinds of stuff in the IoT world.

Data Collection

This software performs a variety of tasks, such as sensing, measurement, filtering light data, securing light data, and aggregating data. It utilizes specialized protocols to enable sensor communication within real-time M2M networks. The software collects data from a wide range of devices and redistributes it based on predetermined conditions. Additionally, it works in reverse time by distributing data across devices. Finally, the system transfers all collected data to a centralized server for further analysis and processing.

Device Integration

Software-supported integration links all system devices together to form the IoT system’s “body”. It provides the necessary interoperability and stable connectivity between devices.

These applications define the IoT network’s software technology because without them, the IoT system wouldn’t exist. They manage the different applications, protocols and restrictions of each device to enable communication.

Real-Time Analytics

These applications aggregate data or input from a wide range of devices and transform it into actionable insights or clear trends for human evaluation. They analyze data based on a variety of environments and architectures to carry out automation-related activities or provide industry-requested data.

Application and Process Extension

These applications augment existing systems and applications to enable a broader, more efficient system. They integrate predefined devices for particular purposes, such as enabling access to mobile devices or technical equipment. This facilitates increased productivity and more precise data collection.

IoT − Technology and Protocols

The primary use of Internet of Things (IoT) protocols and networking technologies is based on standard protocols and protocols. However, the most prominent enabling technologies and protocols for IoT are RFID (Remote Access Device), NFC (Near Field Communication), low-energy Bluetooth (low-energy Bluetooth), low-energy wireless (low-energy radio), LTE-A (LTE-A) and WiFi-Direct (Wi-Fi-Direct). These technologies provide the specific networking capabilities required in an IoT system, as opposed to a standard, unified network of common systems.


The implementation of radio-frequency identification (RFID) and near-field communication (NFC) technology offers a range of convenient, low-power, and adaptable solutions for identity, access, connection, and payment purposes.

-RFID technology utilizes two-way radio transmitters to detect and monitor tags associated with electronic devices.

-NFC, on the other hand, involves the implementation of electronic device communication protocols, usually consisting of a mobile payment and a standard.

Low-Energy Bluetooth

This technology meets the low power, long-term IoT requirements while taking advantage of standard technology with built-in support across different systems.

Low-Energy Wireless

This technology takes care of the most energy-hungry part of an IoT setup. Even though sensors and other components can turn off for long periods of time, communication links (like wireless ones) need to stay in listening mode. With low-energy wireless, not only does it save energy, but it also makes your device last longer because it uses less energy.

Radio Protocols

Low-cost, high-performance radio protocols for low-band private area networks include ZigBee, Z-wave, and Thread. ZigBee and Z-wave are low-band protocols that provide high throughput compared to many other similar options. This boosts the performance of small local devices networks without the typical cost.


LTE-Advanced, also known as LTE-A, provides a significant upgrade to LTE technology, not only increasing its coverage but also reducing latency and increasing its throughput. It enhances the capabilities of the Internet of Things (IoT) by extending its reach, with its primary applications being vehicle, unmanned aerial vehicle, and similar communication.


The use of WiFi-Direct eliminates the requirement for an access point, enabling peer-to-peer (P2P) connections at the same speed as WiFi, but with reduced latency. This eliminates a bottleneck in a network, without compromising on speed or throughput.

IoT − Common Uses

The Internet of Things (IoT) has a wide range of applications across all industries and markets. It is applicable to a wide range of user groups, from individuals looking to reduce energy consumption in their homes to large organizations looking to optimize their operations. As technology progresses and advances towards the level of automation envisioned in the distant future, the use of IoT is proving to be not only beneficial, but also essential in many industries.

SOA interpretation

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): What It Isn’t and What It Is

SOA is not:

  • -A technology
  • -A product
  • -A protocol

Instead, SOA is a collection of:

  • -Regulations
  • -Best practices
  • -Frameworks
  • -Architectural patterns

Cryptocurrencies in business ( Zdzisław Pólkowski)

The name itself clearly indicates that we are dealing with cryptography and currencies.

It must be added, however, that these are specific currencies, because they are only in digital form, so they can be called virtual money.

If a seller accepts a given currency, it can be used to pay for a good or service in the same way as in zlotys, euros, dollars or other currency.

It is worth mentioning that if we know the wallet address of a given cryptocurrency, then you can easily transfer the amount, omitting banks and other intermediaries.

Source: Own ellaboration Zdzisław Pólkowski